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Examples include fractures, faults, and igneous intrusions.Igneous intrusions are sometimes referred to as a seperate principle, the Hutton’s theory of uniformatarianism and the principles of stratigraphy would be fully developed and made popular by another Scottish geologist Charles Lyell (1797-1875) with his classic three volume work, first published from 1830 to 1833, entitled The science of stratigraphy changed humans’ view of the world from one, which was static to one that was dynamic and changing.
In 1788 John Playfair came to see Hutton’s Unconformity in Inchbonny.
Stratigraphy is a branch of geology that studies rock strata with an emphasis on distribution, deposition, age and evidence of past life.
Nicolas Steno, William Smith, Georges Cuvier, Alexandre Brongniart, and James Hutton developed the basic rules for the science of stratigraphy.
These techniques were first articulated by Nicolas Steno, a Dane living in the Medici court of Italy in the 17th C.
The most obvious feature of sedimentary rock is its layering.
The realization that sediments turn into rock was counter to the view that all rocks on Earth formed in a single creation event.
Once Steno recognized that the fossils he was contemplating (sharks teeth and sea shells) were formed in the sediments of oceans he was able to work out the basic rules of stratigraphy.
This law was independently discovered by William Smith (1769-1839), a British engineer, while working on excavations for canals in England (Winchester, 2002 p.
131) and by Georges Cuvier (1769-1832), a French anatomist, and Alexandre Brongniart (1770-1847), a French naturalist and geologist, during their work on the deposits of the Paris Basin.
Making this processes even more difficult is the fact that due to plate tectonics some rock layers have been uplifted into mountains and eroded while others have subsided to form basins and be buried by younger sediments.
With out individual time stamps the process of dating these structures could become extremely difficult.
The unconformity consists of many vertical tilted layers of grey shale overlaid by many layers of horizontal red sandstone.